Culinary Information and Glossary
T, TB, Tbl, Tbsp = Tablespoon
C, c = Cup
oz = Ounce
pt = Pint
qt = Quart
Gal = Gallon
lb = Pound
g = Gram
kg = Kilogram
mL, ml = Milliliter
L, l = Liter
= Less than 1/8 Teaspoon
3 Teaspoons = 1 Tablespoon
2 Tablespoons = 1 Fluid Ounce
4 Tablespoons = 1/4 Cup
5 Tablespoons + 1 Teaspoon = 1/3 Cup
12 Tablespoons = 3/4 Cup
16 Tablespoons = 1 Cup
1 Pony = 1 Fluid Ounce
1 Jigger = 1-1/2 Fluid Ounces
1 Cup = 8 Fluid Ounces
2 Cups = 1 Pint or 16 Fluid Ounces
2 Pints = 1 Quart or 32 Fluid Ounces
4 Quarts = 1 Gallon or 128 Fluid Ounces
tablespoons butter = 1 stick
4 tablespoons butter = 1/2 stick
4 sticks butter = 1 pound
1 pound granulated sugar = 2 cups
1 pound brown sugar = 2 1/4 cups packed
1 cup heavy whipping cream = 2 cups whipped cream
1 large onion = 1 cup chopped
3 medium apples or bananas = 1 pound
4 ounces nuts = 2/3 cups chopped
1 cup uncooked rice = 4 cups cooked
1 large tomato = 3/4 cup chopped
3 to 4 tomatoes = 1 pound
1 pound all-purpose flour = 4 cups sifted
8 ounces chocolate chips = 1 cup
Pasta that is cooked until tender but slightly firm to the bite.
To brush or spoon pan drippings or other fat or liquid over food, to keep the
surface moist and to add flavor.
To partially cook vegetables by parboiling.
To brown meat, then cook slowly in a small amount of liquid. Used to tenderize
tougher cuts of meat.
Round baking pan with straight sides.
To melt sugar without scorching, until it turns golden brown and develops
To cook onions and other vegetables until sweet and golden.
Cream (as in
butter and sugar):
A baking technique involving combining butter or margarine and sugar together
together to a fluffy consistency.
Done by thoroughly beating butter in a bowl, then gradually adding sugar until
mixture is fluffy and creamy.
Cut in (for pastry dough):
To distribute solid fat into dry ingredients with a pastry blender (or two
knives, scissors fashion) until particles are pea size.
small amount, less than 1/8 teaspoon.
pour a small amount of liquid into a hot pan in which something has been fried,
to clean the pan bottom, especially as for gravy.
To finely chop.
Dredge (as in flour):
To thoroughly coat in flour.
Brushing the top of a baked item, such as bread, lightly with a beaten egg.
To gently combine two ingredients, using a bottom-to-top motion with the spoon
A thick sauce, usually made from pan drippings and other liquid, plus flour.
Sauce: food topping (may or may not be cooked) made from any ingredients on
hand, including butter, flour and milk, or even eggs.
To cut vegetables in finger-length, narrow strips approximately the size of
match sticks of various lengths.
Another bread-making term, refers to the folding and working motion used to make
the dough elastic in consistency.
Kosher foods conform to strict Jewish biblical laws pertaining to the type of
food eaten, the kinds of foods combined in one meal, and how an animal is
A baking term used to refer to the shells made from egg white and flavoring, and
filled with a sweet filling, or to the egg whites on a pie, and browned in the
or chop into very fine pieces.
A term for margarine often found in older cookbooks. A stick of oleo is a stick
To boil vegetables until partially cooked.
Round baking pan with slanted sides.
Small, inexact amounts that basically add up to "to taste."
Churned in old world tradition, Plugrá has a touch
more butterfat and less moisture, which makes it richer, creamier and more
flavorful than traditional American butter. The world’s greatest chefs use
Plugrá in place of ordinary butter. With
Plugrá European Style Butter cakes rise higher, pastries are lighter and
fluffier, and sauces are smoother.
To cook food gently in a liquid at or just below its boiling point. Meats are
normally poached in stock, eggs in lightly salted water, fruit in light sugar
A term used in working with yeast-risen products. After letting the dough rise,
one flattens it forcefully in the bowl before turning it out onto a floured
food through a strainer, blender or a food processor, to a smooth mixture.
To decrease quantity and concentrate flavor of a liquid by rapid boiling in an
In bread-making, to let the dough sit a few minutes before kneading more.
In bread-making, to leave the dough in a warm place and allow to double in
When substance is boiling sufficiently that stirring with a spoon does not cause
it to stop boiling.
Melted fat and flour, cooked until bubbly to remove the raw starchy taste of
flour; used to thicken soups and sauces.
A hard icing used for decorating purposes. This icing becomes solid quickly. It
is often used on cookies. The icing, once hard, does not soften.
quickly brown vegetables or meat in a small amount of fat.
Scald (as in milk):
To heat milk just to the point that steam is rising from it, but not to boiling.
These terms are sometimes used interchangably. Technically, a spatula is used to
turn food in a pan, such as pancakes. A scraper is a flat, flexible piece of
rubber attached to a handle. These are useful for scraping food down the
sides of a pan or bowl.
quickly brown the outside of meat at a high temperature.
To cook in liquid close to the boiling point (bubbles form slowly and burst
A syrup that results from cooking water and sugar together until boiling.
crack; hard ball/hard crack:
These are candy-making terms that denote what a ball of the candy does when
placed in a cup of cold water. A good candy thermometer will have these stages
noted on it.
"Spin a thread":
A candy-making term that explains the thread that appears between the spoon and
candy when the spoon is lifted and turned.
secure wings or legs close to poultry with skewers or string.